Antique Handwritten Signed Letter by Eugene Soubeiran. One of the three researchers who discovered chloroform. In 1823 he became Chief Pharmacist of La Pitie Hospital, Paris. In 1832 he became the Director of the Pharmacie Centrale, Paris. Handwritten Signed Letter in French, on stationery with the.Letter is addressed to l'agent de surveillance de l'Hospital Necker, Paris. Letter is on a 7 11/16" x 9 3/4" sheet of. A little wear, lightly browned on letter side, darker browning on address or back side, soiling/foxing, folds. There are seven tiny pinholes - four at middle-right, three at lower left in blank area. There is a 1/4 tear at lower center of sheet, to the left of signature. A wonderful and rare handwritten and signed letter on Pharmacie Centrale stationery, from the first year of. Los descubridores del cloroformo, estudió además un gran número de principios vegetales, el cultivo y comercio de la. Sanguijuela, la sangre de diversos animales, preparaciones farmacéuticas, los tartratos dobles, los cloruros del. Amoníaco y mercurio, la química de los azúcares, la síntesis de numerosos nuevos compuestos orgánicos, etc. Of the discoverers of chloroform, also studied a large number of vegetable principles, the reproduction and commerce. Of leeches, the blood of several animals, pharmaceutical preparations, double tartrates, the chloride of ammonia and. Mercury, the chemistry of sugars, the synthesis of numerous new organic compounds, etc. A previous publication described the life and career of Eugène Soubeiran and his fundamental work on the chlorine. 1 Here we present some of his researches about plant principles, sugar chemistry, tartaric acid. And double tartrates, and nitrogen sulfide.
Soubeiran was a very prolific writer, he published over 140 papers and books in the areas of his interest, mainly. Pharmacy, chemistry, zoology, vegetable principles, chlorinated compounds, leeches, tartrates, and water. In 1824 Soubeiran published the results of his first investigations devoted to the development of better emetics. 3 The cream of soluble tartrate was an emetic where the antimony oxide had been replaced.Soubeiran developed a very good method for preparing and analyzing it; he also was able to determine. Years later, Soubeiran began investigating arsine and was the first to use molted. Zinc arsenide to prepare arsine.
4 At that time, some curious combinations of sulfur with chlorine were known, these. Were red or yellow liquids, depending on the relative proportions of the two elements.
Chloride of ammonia sulfur by treating red sulfur chloride with ammonia; carried on its analysis and found that treated. With water converted it into nitrogen sulfide. 5,6 Soubeiran's studies of mercury derivatives were especially significant. Calomel was used extensively by British physicians for the treatment of a variety of illnesses, in an extremely high.Divided form, prepared by a secret procedure. Soubeiran discovered that it was very easy to prepare it by distilling. Calomel and receiving the passing vapors in a very large space; this caused their condensation inside a very large. Mass of air, which resulted in the formation of a tenuous powder. 7 His most important discovery was chloroform.
(without realizing its use as an anesthetic), 8. Other researches involved the preparation of anhydrous tartar emetic a double salt of antimony and potassium, well. Known since the Middle Ages as a powerful emetic;12 the composition of boric acid and a series of borates;13,14. Mercury ammonium nitrate;15-17 picric acid;18 the manufacture of iodine;19 the reproduction of leeches, their. Commerce, and recycle;20,21 rectification of ethanol;22 the composition of different tartrates;23 the bleaching of wines.By quinquina;24 the manufacture of ether;25 sugar adulteration with dextrin, 26 etc. Having similar characteristics also have similar properties. Plants belonging to the same family have similar. Soubeiran believed that chemical analysis had advanced enough to provide decisive information.
Regarding the validity of the statement. For this reason he decided to carry on a series of experiments on the seeds of. Some of the 15 euphorbiaceae (the spurge family), for which their properties were known, e. (Jatropha curcas), coral tree (Jatropha multifada), caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), castor oil plant Ricinus. Communis, purging croton (Croton tiglium), etc.
A remarkable fact was that except for navelspurge Omphalea. Triandra from Santo Domingo, all these plants were strong emetics. Soubeiran studied the properties of the full seeds, the oil they contained and the residual material, and concluded as.
Follows: (a) the seeds of the pinion of India, coral tree, caper spurge, castor oil plant, and purging croton, owed their. Emetic properties to a resinous substance; (b) this resin was very abundant in the euphorbia seeds, and little so in. Soubeiran mentioned that after ingesting one seed of the pinion of India he promptly experimented.An acrid feeling in his throat, which slowly propagated to the esophagus and the stomach, and then gave place to. Strong vomiting for about two hours; (c) this resin was not the principal purgative factor of castor oil. Oil plants contained a certain amount of vegetable acids, which were also purgative.
Their amount increased as the oil. Became older or was heated. Soubeiran mentioned that one of his employees had put a very small amount of these.Acids in his tongue and as a result had suffered of a violent diarrhea for three days; and (d) the oil contained in the. Seeds of purging croton was very similar to those of euphorbiaceae, except that it contained a very poisonous volatile. Capitaine isolated true cubebin by evaporating a strong alcoholic tincture of cubebs which have. Been exhausted of their oil by distillation to one-fourth its bulk, followed by filtering and further evaporation nearly. The residue was washed with a little quantity of water, dissolved in alcohol, and recrystallized repeatedly. The purified needle crystals were neutral, white, insipid, odorless and non-volatile, occurring in. Groups of small acicular crystals, and sparingly soluble in water and cold alcohol. Captaine, cold alcohol dissolved but a small quantity of it; at 53 °C, 100 parts of absolute alcohol dissolved but 1.31. Parts: alcohol of 82° dissolved 0 70, but when boiling both dissolved so much that on cooling the liquor became a. At 53 °C, 100 parts of ether dissolved 3.73 of cubebin.
Cubebin was also soluble in acetic acid and in the. Cubebin in contact with concentrated sulfuric acid assumed a deep red color. Analyzed by means of cupric oxide and found to contain, by weight, 68.19% carbon, 5.64% hydrogen, and 26.45%. Oxygen (the true values are 67.40, 5.66, and 26.94, respectively).
Capitaine and Soubeiran remarked that cubebin was. Substantially different from the crystalline matter obtained from black pepper because it did not contain nitrogen and. Had a different carbon to hydrogen ratio. The work done about camphenes did not allow Soubeiran and Capitaine to decide if the products obtained by.
Fractional distillation of the essence of bergamot pre-existed in the essence or were a result of an alteration. Reason they made a more detailed examination of the process. The oil was distilled completely by means of water. (steam distillation) and dried with calcium chloride; the resulting distillate had specific gravity 0.869 and rotatory. It was again steam distilled with water and the product collected in four portions: the first refracted 45°.The second 88°, the third 21°, and the fourth not at all. This result proved clearly that the essence of bergamot. Consisted of at least two oils. Soubeiran and Capitaine believed that one or more of the components were oils.
Belonging to the camphene order (C10H18) and that another component was a hydrate of unknown composition. Water of the hydrate was totally eliminated by the action of anhydrous phosphoric acid and the resulting essence. Found to contain 89% carbon and 11.57% hydrogen, a composition identical to that of citrene and the essence of. According to Soubeiran and Capitaine, it was well known that treatment of turpentine with HCl produced a solid.Substance known as artificial camphor and that little was known about the properties of the latter. Decided to conduct a series of experiments on the subject. 30 Their results indicated that the reaction of HCl with. Turpentine produced two different compounds, one was the ordinary artificial camphor characterized by the fact that.
The turpentine contained in it (the camphene of Dumas) retained its original rotatory power; the other combination. Was liquid, which also contained a portion of turpentine, and had the same chemical composition and capacity of. Saturation of the original substance but had lost the property of giving a solid camphor. Soubeiran and Capitaine named peucylene, dissolved in liquid camphor and presented a weaker (levo) rotatory power.
Than that of the volatile oil of turpentine. Solid camphor decomposed by lime yielded a singular oil (terebene) having some peculiar properties: the density of. Its liquid and vapor, boiling point, elementary composition were the same as for turpentine; but it was deprived of. It combined with HCl and produced solid camphor, unable of deviating the rays of polarized light. The liquid camphor of turpentine (peucylene hydrochloride) had the same chemical composition as solid camphor.
When decomposed by lime it yielded a volatile oil (terebilene) having properties very similar to those of terebene and. This new oil, which Soubeiran named terebilene, seemed identical with terebene, except that it did not. Yield solid camphor; its smell was different from that of turpentine and had no rotating power. Soubeiran and Capitaine remarked that camphene, terebene, peucylene, and terebilene, constituted a remarkable. Series of four chemically isomeric bodies, formed from the same elements, united in the same weight proportion.Having a common capacity of saturation, similar atomic masses, although having a peculiar molecular state. Added that they could not provide a reason for this phenomenon. In an additional more extensive publication, Soubeiran and Capitaine wrote that they used the term camphene to. Designate a group of essential oils containing carbon and hydrogen in the ratio 5:8.
Here they added a more detailed. Description of the compounds they had described previously turpentine, solid camphor, terebene, terebilene. Peucylene (today all of these are known to be mixtures of terpenes), as well as about essences such as those of citron. Orange, bergamot, copahu, cubeb, jenevier, and pepper. They reported that they had treated turpentine many times with HCl and had never seen that it transformed.
Completely into a solid body; it always yielded a solid and a liquid phase. The chloro derivative (liquid camphor) was. Found to contain 71.24% carbon, 9.36% hydrogen, and 19.40% chlorine, the same composition as that of solid. Distillation of the essence of citron showed the passage of several fractions having different boiling points and. Density, indicating that it was composed of various volatile oils or of a unique compound, which decomposed under.All these fractions were found to be dextrorotatory. The vapor specific gravity of an essence having.
Density 0.844 was found to vary between 4.81 and 4.87, that is, the same as that of the essence of turpentine. Treatment with HCl generated solid camphor mixed with a liquid phase. An alcoholic solution of solid camphor.
Decomposed easily on heating, releasing abundant HCl. The decomposition yielded oil that Soubeiran and Capitaine. Liquid citrene had a relative density of 0.847 and no rotary power; the density of its vapor was 4.73. The same as the vapors of the essence and of the vapors of the essence of turpentine. That lime decomposed the liquid camphor of citron yielding a new substance they named citrilene.Density of the latter in liquid or vapor form was 0.88 and 5.08, respectively. Soubeiran and Capitaine concluded that the behavior of the essence of citron was very similar to that of the essence. Both of them, treated with HCl, yielded a liquid and a solid combination, which were isomeric. Soubeiran and Capitaine distilled a sample of essence of orange pure and found that the first fraction that passed. Boiled at 180 0C, had a relative density of 0.835, and a rotary power of +127.430. The relative density and rotary. Power of the last fraction were 0.837 and +125.590. Treatment of the essence with HCl yielded a mixture. Of solid and liquid camphor having properties very similar to those of citron. Essence of bergamot indicated that the first fraction passed at 105 0C, and had relative density 0.850 and rotary power. Surprisingly, the last fraction, having relative density 0.877 was levorotatory -6.5750. The essence of copahu examined had a relative density of 0.881 and a rotary power of -34.180. Dry produced a mixture of crystalline solid and brown thick oil. The crystals were shaped as rectangular prisms. Highly transparent, odorless, melting at 770C, and containing 57.97% carbon, 8.51% hydrogen, and 33.52% chlorine.
The essence of cubeb (extracted from the dry unripe nearly full-grown fruit of Java pepper, Piper cubeb) was. Aromatic, colorless, and viscous oil, of specific gravity 0.929 after being distilled in the presence of a saturated.
According to Soubeiran, the oil contained a hydrate which calcium chloride was unable to. Decompose, but did so when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.
The resulting essential oil had a relative. Density of 0.929 and a rotary power of -29.10.
Analysis of the oil indicated that it contained 88.77% carbon and. 11.23% hydrogen (corresponding to C15H24), identical to that of essence of turpentine. Treated with dry HCl dry it. Turned into a crystalline mass of artificial camphor.
The crystals of this camphor were shaped as long rectangular. Oblique prisms, odorless and colorless, fusing at 1310C, very soluble in alcohol, and found to contain 2 atoms of. %, 26 of hydrogen (9.26%) and 15 of carbon (65.47%). The rotatory power of the alcoholic.
The essences of jenevier and pepper showed similar results. Soubeiran and Capitaine summarized their findings as follows: (1) all the natural volatile oils of formula C5H8. Deviated polarized light to the right or to the left; (b) all the oils obtained by distillation of artificial camphor had not. Action on polarized light; (c) the oils included as bases in the composition of artificial camphors could be divided into. Three classes: in the first one, the base kept the rotatory power of the original essence, it probably was identical with it.
And had for atomic formula C10H12 e. Camphene, peucylene, terebene, and terebilene; in the second class the. Rotatory power of the oil was larger than that of the primitive essence and its general formula was C10H16 e. Citrilene, hesperidene, hesperidilene copahene copahilene, and bergamilene; in the third class the base of the.
Artificial camphor had no rotatory power although it originated from an oil capable to deviate polarized light, and. Corresponded to the general formula C10H14 e. Soubeiran and Capitaine provided a table containing the. Density and rotatory power (yellow light, thickness of 100 mm, and ideal density 1) of 44 different liquid phases of.The various essences they had studied. In 1847 Soubeiran reported that he had subjected to various experiments specimens of gutta percha a Malay term. Meaning ragged gum received from the Minister of Commerce and several other parties, and found that it contained. At least five different substances: (1) pure gutta percha; (2) a vegetable acid; (3) casein; (4) a resin soluble in ether and.
In oil of turpentine; and (5) a resin soluble in alcohol. The presence of casein was indicated by the smell of spoiled. Cheese, which was very strong in the sample brought from China.
This odor was not perceptible in a specimen sent to. Soubeiran by a friend from London.The vegetable acid was found (in very small amount) in the water in which the. Gutta percha has been boiled. The acid was associated with a little brown extractive matter, which probably originated. From the impurities mingled with the vegetable fluid.
Alcohol at 40 °C removed from gutta percha a transparent. Odorless resin, a little soft, which was easily dissolved in oil of turpentine and in ether.Repeatedly in boiling alcohol and then subjected it to prolonged boiling with sulfuric ether in a proper apparatus. This manner he was able to separate a small quantity of a white yellowish resin, which completely dissolved in ethyl. Ether and oil of turpentine. This resin smelled strongly like leather, and to it could be ascribed the leathery smell. Which noted in the raw gutta percha of commerce.
After these two treatments by alcohol and ether, the gum lost only a very minute portion of its weight; a result. Indicating that gutta percha consisted of a peculiar matter very analogous to the natural material (pure gutta percha). According to Soubeiran, the accompanying impurities were easily and effectively removed by rectified oil of. The resulting solution allowed to rest became quite limpid, and when decanted and precipitated by. Alcohol, the gutta percha separated in a soft mass, which kept all its properties after it had been several times washed.Elemental analysis in a long tube holding a mixture of potassium chlorate and cupric oxide. Indicated that gutta percha contained, by weight, 87.8% of carbon and 12.2% of hydrogen, a result which approached. 33 Nevertheless, Soubeiran believed that gutta percha was very different from natural rubber, as an. Immediate principle (today we know that gutta percha is a trans isomer of natural rubber).
Suggested that it could find use in the manufacture of whips, impermeable or waterproof soles for boots and shoes. Handles of tools and instruments, and a multitude of domestic utensils.
All these articles would have along life, and. Once they became unserviceable in their present form, it was enough to be submerge them in hot water in order to.Refit them, or to make them serve in a new form. Souberain also wrote that gutta percha imported by the China mission was shaped as a round loaf, a little flattened. It looked at first sight as if it were enclosed in a layer of skin, but careful examination showed that this. Exterior covering was only the substance itself in a highly dried condition On cutting the leaf in two, it was seen it. Was formed by a matter still soft which had been added at several distinct times, and the different portion of which. Formed layers placed over each other. The consistence was tenacious and in some degree membranous. Of old cheese, yet some of the odor of leather was also perceptible. Soubeiran found that upon heating it became soft.
Perfectly plastic, and convertible into all sorts of forms, which were retained with accuracy when the substance. In 1837 Soubeiran announced that he had synthesized nitrogen sulfide by reacting gaseous ammonia with sulfur. 6,34 In his procedure he. Dropped a capsule containing a small quantity of sulfur chloride into a large receiver full with dry ammonia gas and. Repeated the addition until the reaction was complete.
The resulting dirty green flaky material, kept for 24 hours in an. Ammonia atmosphere, turned into a mixture of nitrogen sulfide and ammonium chloride. Eliminated by water washes, According to Soubeiran, the success of this operation required several precautions: (1).Use of sulfur chloride saturated with chlorine; (2) use of a large ratio of ammonia to sulfur chloride and a large vessel. To prevent an increase in temperature; (3) promptly washing with water the resulting mixture of nitrogen sulfide and. Ammonium chloride, and drying the nitrogen sulfide, first by pressure between folds of blotting paper and afterwards. Soubeiran reported that nitrogen sulfide was a lemon yellow odorless solid, initially tasteless and afterwards acrid. And detonating violently by percussion or by the sudden application of heat. Mixed with some inert body it. Decomposed quietly, at about 140 °C, into sulfur and nitrogen. It was sparingly soluble in water and more in alcohol.
Slightly heating the aqueous solution changed the nitrogen sulfide gradually into ammonium bisulfate. Evaporation of a solution in pure and dry ether left a deposit of crystallized nitrogen sulfide.
Quickly into ammonia and ammonium bisulfate; with the acids it yielded ammonia, sulfur, and SO2. According to Soubeiran, nitrogen sulfide was composed of two atoms of nitrogen (two volumes) and three atoms of. Sulfur, and corresponded, in the series of the sulfides, to the acid of the nitrates in the series of oxygenated bodies. Revista CENIC Ciencias Biológicas, Vol.
Could also be considered nitrous acid in which the oxygen had been replaced by sulfur. General character of the amides: by combining with water it changed into ammonia and acid. In 1837 Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Julius von Liebig reported the curious fact that antimony potassium tartrate.
(emetic tartar) lost, upon heating, two equivalents of water more than other tartrates. 36 This observation led Soubeiran. And Capitaine to explore the possibility that other double tartrates, having a composition similar to that of emetic. Tartar, would also have the same property. Potassium ferric tartrate (tartarus ferratum) was the first double salt studied and yielded negative results.
Prepared by digesting at 50 to 60 0C for 24 to 36 hours an aqueous mixture of potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar). The excess ferric hydroxide was separated by filtration and the clear solution evaporated in.The resulting double salt, which appeared as bright reddish brown transparent scales, was found. To have the same composition of emetic tartrate, without the water of crystallization and the antimony oxide being. Replaced by ferric oxide (it contained one equivalent of iron). Heated at a temperature not exceeding 130 °C it yielded.
Simultaneously water and CO2 while the ferric oxide was partly reduced. The next salt studied was potassium borate.Tartrate (soluble cream of tartar), a salt more difficult to prepare in the proper proportions because it was non. Crystallizable, as Soubeiran had previously shown. 5 Soubeiran and Capitaine found that the resulting soluble cream of. Tartar, dried at 100 °C could be heated to near 285 °C without alteration. At higher temperatures it lost two.
Equivalents of water, showing the same behavior as emetic tartar. Soubeiran and Capitaine remarked that this loss of. Water, which took place in both emetics, could not be reconciled with the admitted elementary composition of tartaric. Several chemists had proposed explanations for the possible origin of the water eliminated.
Example, Liebig believed that upon heating, part of the antimony oxide was reduced to metal and the resulting oxygen. United with the hydrogen of the acid to form the two atoms of water. Soubeiran and Capitaine did not agree with.Liebig's explanation because their results indicated that a careful calcination of soluble emetic left a residue that did. Soubeiran and Capitaine preferred to admit that the two atoms of water were present and united in. The state of base, to the tartaric acid: The composition of tartaric acid and tartrates could be very simply represented.
By adopting for the equivalent of the acid the formula C8H4O8. This acid would always be united to four equivalents.
Of base, where two of them would be retained more strongly that the others. Thus, the composition of tartaric acid. Potassium bitartrate, neutral potassium tartrate, and lead tartrate would be, respectively, C8H4O8 + 2H2O + H2O H2O. C8H4O8 + 2H2O + H2O KO; C8H4O8 + 2H2O + KO KO; and C8H4O8 + 2H2O + PbO PbO; while those of emetic. Dried at 100 0C, potassium ferric tartrate, and soluble tartar cream would be, respectively, C8H4O8 + 2H2O + KO.Sb2O3; C8H4O8 + 2H2O + KO Fe2O3; and C8H4O8 + 2H2O + KO B32. Soubeiran carried a large number of experiences on the effects of water, heat, air, and a variety of chemicals on. Different kinds of sugar e. Cane sugar, raisin sugar, and honey. 37-45 He wrote that the information available on the.
Subject was scarce and contradictory; for example, Thenard had heated a solution of cane sugar to a temperature of. To 100 0C and noted that it became colored and that it was impossible to crystallize most of the sugar it contained.
The sugar lost part of its rotatory power and became an analog of starch sugar. It was also known that sugar cane in the.
Presence of diluted acids yielded syrup that was levo rotatory and non-crystallizable; eventually the syrup. Transformed into raisin sugar, which crystallized as cauliflower shaped crystals and turned polarized light to the.
In the first series of experiments, Soubeiran studied the influence of heat, water, and air on an aqueous solution of. Sugar cane, for periods of time up to 184 hours. His results indicated that under these conditions the initial.
Dextrorotatory power went through a cyclic process. First it decreased slowly until it became nil; then it became. Increasingly levo (also acid and colored) until it reached -240.
(yellow ray, length 100 mm). From there on the rotatory.Power decreased until it became nil, and then, once again, it became increasingly dextro. The rate of these changes. Increased with increasing concentration and temperature. Similar experiments conducted with honey sugar and with.
Cane sugar hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid indicated that they were little affected by heat and water. In the second series of experiments an aqueous solution of sugar was heated in the presence of calcium carbonate or. Calcium saccharate, for different periods of time.
The results indicated that the presence of alkalis retarded the. An interesting result was that non-crystallizable sugar was also affected by the presence. In a following paper Soubeiran reported the results of his analysis of the products of the reaction of sugar with. The oxides of barium, calcium, lead, and sodium.
This procedure was based on the complete. Combustion of the salts using a mixture of lead chromate with a small quantity of potassium acid chromate; the. Purpose of the latter was to assure the elimination of the last traces of water and carbon dioxide from the combustion. His results indicated that calcium oxide was able to form two combinations with sugar, containing two or three.
Molecules of CaO per molecule of sugar. An interesting result was that lead oxide, PbO, was able to eliminate all the. Water from the sugar (tetra) hydrate, while the combinations with CaO, BaO, and K2O remained attached to their.Sugar of fruits (fructose) changed into alcohol without passing through an intermediate state, and that both sugars kept. The direction of their rotating power during this transformation.
In other words, the sugars themselves fermented. Soubeiran decided to study these phenomena in more detail because the claim regarding of liquid sugar contradicted.The results obtained previously by Biot. 47 For this purpose he treated first cane sugar with sulfuric acid, then diluted. The solution with distilled water, let it ferment in a stove maintained at 30 0C, and examined the rotatory power of the.
Liquid at different periods of time. He repeated this experiments using glucose in grains, instead of cane sugar. All these experiments he concluded that (a) cane sugar was changed by fermentation into liquid sugar and not into.Raisin sugar, as had been claimed so far; (b) it was incorrect to state that cane sugar transformed completely into fruit. Sugar immediately with the initiation of fermentation; this change occurred slowly and the liquid contained cane sugar. Until fermentation approached its end, and (c) raisin sugar and liquid sugar were transformed directly by fermentation.
Without going through an intermediate state. In another memoir, Soubeiran compared glucose with the sugar of fruits (fructose). It was known that the latter was. Levorotatory, thermo-labile, and non-crystallizable, although it could be solidified by controlled evaporation.Particular experiment Soubeiran dissolved sodium chloride in syrup of sugar of fruits and left the solution to dry. Naturally in a well-aerated room. After several months he noted the appearance of regular crystals, which were similar. To those of glucose and dextrorotatory.
The latter was a surprising result because no reaction took place between sugar. Of fruits and common salt. Soubeiran reacted glucose and sugar of fruits with lead acetate and with milk of lime, and. Milk of baryta, and determined the elementary composition of the resulting salts, and also of the mixed crystals of. Sodium chloride and the two sugars.
The results led him to the following conclusions: (a) the transformation of sugar. Of fruits (fructose) to glucose did not occur during the solidification of the former; it only took place when fructose. Assumed a crystalline structure; (b) glucose and fructose, dried at 100 0C, had the same composition; (c) the. Combinations of both sugars with bases had similar compositions, and (d) bases combined with these sugars by.
Displacing their water of crystallization. Other papers related to the composition of honey. 43,44 According to Soubeiran, it was well known that the honey of.
Bees contained two different sugars, one solid and the other liquid. The former was considered to be identical with the. Granular sugar, which was slowly precipitated from the syrup of raisin sugar, or that of cane sugar modified by acids.
Little was known about the liquid part of honey; Biot believed it was a levo sugar. Contained three different sugars, namely, (a) granular sugar (glucose), (b) a dextro sugar alterable by acids, and lastly. (c) a levo sugar with a rotary power almost double that of altered sugar. Soubeiran found that the deviation of the.Changed to -13.780 under the action of acids. In 1841 he had separated by pressing the fluid. Portion (liquid sugar of honey) of regular honey and found (in 1848) that it was still liquid, without any indication of.
This circumstance was sufficient to distinguish it from sugar altered sugar by acids, which would not. Have failed to become a solid mass of granular sugar.
Liquid sugar of honey possessed, however, a number of. Characters also present in cane sugar altered by acids: it was non-crystallizable, and reducible to a sort of barley sugar. Which was transparent and solid, but melted easily. In addition, the liquid sugar of honey was very sensible to the. Action of alkalis and readily destroyed by them.
The two sugars had the same chemical composition and combined. With alkalis in the same proportion. This agreement of characters would tend to confound them; it was not that the. Liquid sugar of honey could not be converted into granular sugar, and the large difference in their rotary power.
Eugène Soubeiran (5 December 1797, in Paris - 17 November 1859, in Paris) was a French scientist. From 1823 he served as chief pharmacist at La Pitie Hospital in Paris.
In 1832 he became director of Pharmacie Centrale, a drug manufacturing and distribution center for the hospitals and hospices of Paris (hôpitaux et hospices de Paris).  The following year, he was chosen as an assistant professor of pharmacy, subsequently taking charge of the chair of physics at the Ecole de Pharmacie.
After receiving his medical degree, he was appointed to the chair of pharmacy at the Faculty of Medicine (1853). He was one of three researchers who discovered chloroform independently of one another. Soubeiran was the first to publish his findings, but it is difficult to determine who was actually first to make the discovery, as each may have allowed an interval of time to elapse between discovery and publication.
In 1839, with Hyacinthe Capitaine, he was co-discoverer of cubebin. Recherches analitiques sur la crème de tartre soluble par l'acide borique, présentées à l'Ecole spéciale de Pharmacie, 1824 - Analytical research on cream of tartar soluble with boric acid, presented at the Ecole spéciale de Pharmacie. Handbuch der pharmaceutischen Praxis, oder ausführliche Darstellung der pharmaceutischen Operationen, sammt den gewähltesten Beispielen ihrer Anwendung. Winter, Heidelberg 1839 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
Mémoire sur les camphènes, 1840 (with Hyacinthe Capitaine) - Memorandum on camphenes. Nouveau traité de pharmacie théorique et pratique, 1840 - New treatise on theoretical and practical pharmacy. Précis élémentaire de physique, 1844 - Specific elementary physics. This item is in the category "Collectibles\Autographs\Historical". The seller is "memorabilia111" and is located in this country: US.This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.